Q1 2023 Lincoln Private Market Index

Lincoln Private Market Index Grows Modestly in Q1 2023 as a Result of Resilient Private Company Performance

The Lincoln Private Market Index (LPMI) reveals that in Q1 2023, private market enterprise values increased 1.5%. This quarter, the LPMI increased due to modest improvement in operating performance in the private markets, partially offset by the eighth consecutive quarter of multiple contraction, albeit a negligible amount this period. Whereas the Lincoln PMI increased 1.5%, the S&P 500 EV increased by 8.2%, reflecting the S&P 500’s significantly more volatile enterprise value multiples; over the last 12 months, the Lincoln PMI outperformed the S&P 500 EVs. Although all other industries saw steady or strong enterprise value growth due primarily to EBITDA improvement, healthcare companies continued to experience cost pressures which resulted in flat enterprise values.

About the Lincoln Private Market Index

The Lincoln PMI is a first-of-its-kind index measuring changes in the enterprise values of private companies over time – and a barometer of the performance of private companies generally. The Lincoln PMI enables private equity firms and other investors to benchmark how private company investments are performing against peers, and how this performance correlates to the S&P 500.

Lincoln designed the Lincoln PMI to solve this problem by measuring the quarterly change in enterprise values for private companies primarily owned by private equity firms. Enterprise value (“EV”) is the sum of a company’s equity value and debt.

  • Quarterly Overview

    • 23rd Edition: Covers Q1 2023
    • Measures quarterly changes in the enterprise values of ~825 private companies, based on a population of approximately 4,000 companies primarily owned by private equity firms with a median EBITDA of ~$30-35 million
    • Analyzes the impact from the change in company earnings versus market valuation multiples
    • Assess the change in value for six industry sectors
  • Click here to download a printable version of this report.


Private Markets Remain Insulated Amidst Public Market Volatility

(NOTE: Both the Lincoln PMI and S&P 500 EV returns above reflect enterprise values)
(S&P 500 EV excludes financial companies for which enterprise value is generally not meaningful; however, including such companies produces similar results)


Q1 ’23 LTM CAGR since inception
LPMI 1.5% 4.6% 8.1%
S&P 500 EV 8.2% (7.6%) 8.3%

Sector Breakdown

Consumer Valuations Declined While Other Industries Saw Flat-to-Modest Growth

Industry Q1 ’23 LTM
Bus Services 1.2% 9.1%
Consumer 1.9% (0.1%)
Energy 10.8% 36.6%
Healthcare 0.0% (1.4%)
Industrials 0.7% 11.0%
Technology 3.2% 2.5%

Examining the Lincoln PMI

EBITDA Multiples Versus Earnings

Expansion of LPMI valuation multiples since Q1 2014


The Lincoln PMI

General Observations

  • Private company enterprise values increased for the third consecutive quarter as the Lincoln PMI increased 1.5%. The index has increased 40.9% from pre-pandemic levels observed in Q4 2019 but growth has steadily slowed for over a year.
  • Despite similar directional growth in 2021, the Lincoln PMI and S&P 500 EV experienced diverging performance in early 2022 before reconverging in Q1 2023. The differences were a result of more volatile multiples seen throughout 2022 in the S&P 500 EV relative to the Lincoln PMI.
  • Since its inception in Q1 2014, the Lincoln PMI has shown that private company enterprise value multiples have been less volatile than public company multiples and that earnings are the primary factor driving long term value creation.

Enterprise Value Results

  • In Q1 2023, private market valuations continued to hinge on companies’ ability to pass on price increases, cut costs, and/or handle the rising rate and inflationary environment. The outlook for the remainder of 2023 remained uncertain as the ability for companies to continue to grow performance and overcome persistent rising rates continued to be questioned.
  • Direct lending remains in a period of price discovery. Investors have continued to remain selective and focused on recession-resilient companies in the first quarter of 2023, as evidenced by the reduced leverage of new deals. This selectiveness may lead to a buildup of dry powder in the back half of 2023. If investors look to deploy the built-up capital in the second half of 2023, the private market may be able to sustain the recent level of enterprise value multiples, which could stabilize enterprise values in 2023 should operating performance finally soften.
  • In Q1 2023, both the Lincoln PMI and S&P 500 EV indices increased, although for different reasons. The Lincoln PMI benefitted from improved operating results, whereas the S&P 500 index benefitted from multiple expansion.

Industry Breakdown on an Enterprise Value Basis

  • Despite lower earnings results year-over-year and lower discretionary spending entering a potential recessionary environment, consumer companies continued to recover and grew enterprise values at an above-market rate in Q1 2023.
  • Healthcare, a former safe haven, was the only industry to see flat enterprise value in Q1 2023 as healthcare companies continued to face greater labor pressures and difficulties in increasing pricing.

In Summary, we believe the Lincoln PMI

  • Enables investors in private companies, including private equity firms, to benchmark their investments against their peers and the S&P 500 on both enterprise value and equity value bases;
  • Demonstrates that private companies generate returns comparable to major public stock market indices with less volatility;
  • Offers many unique valuation insights into the fair value of private companies for a wide array of stakeholders and investors; and
  • Represents a significant enhancement to the information available to investors in private companies.


Source of Data and Sample Size

On a quarterly basis, Lincoln determines the enterprise fair value of over 4,000 portfolio companies for over 140 sponsors (i.e., private equity groups and lenders to private equity groups). These portfolio companies report quarterly financial results to the sponsor or lender. Lincoln obtains this information and determines the appropriate enterprise value multiple so as to compute the enterprise value in accordance with the fair value measurement principles of generally accepted accounting principles. In assessing enterprise value, Lincoln relies on well accepted valuation methodologies such as the market approach and income approach considering each company’s historical and projected performance and other qualitative and quantitative factors. Finally, each valuation is then vetted by auditors, company management, boards of directors and regulators. Upon concluding each quarterly valuation cycle, Lincoln aggregates the underlying financial performance and enterprise value data for analysis.

To construct the Lincoln PMI, Lincoln selects a subsection of the companies valued each quarter, including private companies each generating earnings before interest, taxes, depreciation and amortization of less than $100.0 million, disregarding venture-stage businesses and non-operating entities, such as special purpose entities that own real estate and specialty finance assets.

For more information, visit www.lincolninternational.com/services/valuations-and-opinions/lincolnpmi


portfolio companies are evaluated by Lincoln on a quarterly basis to determine their Enterprise Fair Value
sponsors participate in LPMI i.e. private equity groups & lenders to private equity groups


Academic Advisors

Professor Steven Kaplan

Professor Steven Kaplan is a Senior Advisor to Lincoln’s Valuations and Opinions Group. He is the Neubauer Family Distinguished Service Professor of Entrepreneurship and Finance and Kessenich E.P. Faculty Director at the Polsky Center for Entrepreneurship and Innovation at the University of Chicago Booth School of Business. Among other courses, Professor Kaplan teaches advanced Master of Business Administration and executive courses in entrepreneurial finance and PE, corporate finance, corporate governance and wealth management. Professor Kaplan conducts research on a wide array of issues in PE, venture capital, corporate governance, boards of directors, mergers and acquisitions and corporate finance. He has been a member of the Chicago Booth faculty since 1988.

Professor Kaplan serves on the board of Morningstar and several fund and company advisory boards. He is also a Research Associate at the National Bureau of Economic Research and an Associate Editor of the Journal of Financial Economics.

Professor Kaplan received a Bachelor of Arts, summa cum laude, in applied mathematics and economics from Harvard College and earned a Doctor of Philosophy in business economics from Harvard University.

Professor Michael Minnis

Professor Michael Minnis is a Senior Advisor to Lincoln’s Valuations and Opinions Group. He is a Professor of Accounting at the University of Chicago Booth School of Business, where he researches the role of accounting information in allocating investment efficiently by both managers and capital providers. His recent research focuses on understanding the role of privately held companies in the U.S. economy and how these firms use financial reporting to access, deploy and manage capital. He particularly enjoys identifying unique data and methods to empirically examine issues in a novel way.

In January 2018, Professor Minnis became a member of the Private Company Council, the primary advisory council to the Financial Accounting Standards Board (FASB) on private company issues. Professor Minnis received his Ph.D. from the University of Michigan and his Bachelor of Science from the University of Illinois, where he graduated with highest honors.

Meet Our Senior Team

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IMPORTANT DISCLOSURE: The Lincoln Private Market Index is an informational indicator only, and does not constitute investment advice or an offer to sell or a solicitation to buy any security. It is not possible to directly invest in the Lincoln Private Market Index. Some of the statements above contain opinions based upon certain assumptions regarding the data used to create the Lincoln Private Market Index, and these opinions and assumptions may prove incorrect. Actual results could vary materially from those implied or expressed in such statements for any reason. The Lincoln Private Market Index has been created on the basis of information provided by third-party sources that are believed to be reliable, but Lincoln International has not conducted an independent verification of such information. Lincoln International makes no warranty or representation as to the accuracy or completeness of such third-party information.

The LPMI should not be construed as an offer to sell or buy, or a solicitation to sell or buy, any products linked to the performance of the LPMI. The use of the LPMI in any manner, including for benchmarking purposes, is not endorsed or recommended by Lincoln International and Lincoln International is not responsible for any use made of the LPMI. Lincoln International does not guarantee the accuracy and/or completeness of the LPMI and Lincoln International shall not have any liability for any errors or omissions therein. None of Lincoln International, any of its affiliates or subsidiaries, nor any of its directors, officers, employees, representatives, delegates or agents shall have any responsibility to any person (whether as a result of negligence or otherwise) for any determination made or anything done (or omitted to be determined or done) in respect of the LPMI and any use to which any person may put the LPMI. Lincoln International has no obligation to update the LPMI and has no obligation to investors with respect to any product based on the performance of the LPMI. Any investment in such a product will not acquire an interest in the LPMI. Lincoln International is not an investment adviser and will not provide any financial advice relating to a product linked to the performance of the LPMI. Investors should read any such product offering documentation and consult with their own legal, financial and tax advisors before investing in any such product.